Wednesday, April 20, 2011

A Horse is a Horse...

C. Masterman & Son Framingham Market

When I was growing up I often wondered where my love of horses had come from. There was no one in my immediate family that carried this disease gene. As far back as I remember I was crazy about horses, eventually parlaying that hobby into earning a living.

Of course, up until the early 1900s when the auto was invented, everyone had a horse. Even city dwellers relied on horses for transportation. Country folks relied on horses not only for transportation but, more importantly, for working in their fields.

In 1867, the rural horse population in America was estimated at nearly 8,000,000, while the number of farm workers was well under 7,000,000. By the early 1900’s, there were nearly 20,000,000 on America’s farms, outnumbering humans! Today, there are 6.9 million, mostly recreational horses.

Wedding trip, 1903

As I’ve collected photos and family stories, I found it fascinating to see my ancestors and their connections to horses. My great great grandfather, Chesman Masterman, owned a general store in Framingham, Massachusetts and utilized a horse-drawn wagon for deliveries, photo at top. When his son Filmore married my great-grandmother in 1903, they took their wedding trip by horse-drawn carriage from Massachusetts to his hometown in Weld, Maine.

Above is a picture of Filmore Masterman holding a horse for the blacksmith as a young man in Charlestown, Massachusetts, a job that I spent a great deal of time doing over the years!

Hugh McMonagle at his Sussex Post inn, with his son & daughter ca 1880's

My great grandmother’s family, the McMonagles, had emigrated from Ireland in the late 1700s and settled in New Brunswick, Canada. One of her grandfather's cousins, Hugh McMonagle, son of Cornelius, was a serious horse breeder, bringing thoroughbred race breeding to the area and some of the first organized racing meets in Canada. 

First Morgan horse, Justin Morgan.

He was also a breeder of work & saddle horses, having introduced the Morgan horse to that country.  Morgans were the first breed developed in America as a versatile work and saddle horse.

Amadeus  Mozart Ara-Li winning McMonagle award

Amadeus  Mozart Ara-Li at McMonagle's inn.

There is a McMonagle Memorial Versatility Award is given each year at the New Brunswick Morgan Horse Show in honor of Hugh McMonagle. The past 3 years, the stallion Amadeus  Mozart Ara-Li has won it. 

Beer Wagon, ca 1900

On the German side of the family, My great great grandfather Joseph Enz made his living driving a beer wagon for Schmidt’s in Philadelphia. His brother's son George, (photo left) who stayed back on the family farm in Drackenstein, used both horses and cattle as draft animals. Joseph Enz’ wife, Krescentia, told her children that as a girl in Bottingen, it was her job to harness up the workhorses. The horse pictured is likely a Black Forest Horse, well adapted to work in the fields of that region.

My great grandfather, Frederick Peterson, after emigrating from Sweden, became a fireman in the town of Everett, Massachusetts, during the era of horse-drawn fire engines. Up to five horses pulled the engine, it must have been quite a sight to see them galloping down the street with the bell clanging. In 1900, it took them approximately 15 minutes to get to a fire.

Below is an excerpt from a speech by the Mayor of Everett in 1907, outlining the use of these horses. Horses were used in Everett until 1928.

The fire horses certainly worked hard in a hazardous job, but were highly valued by the men who cared for them and depended on them everyday.

The Army, up until World War II, relied heavily on horses for their cavalry. They had their own breeding program to supply soldiers.  My kids' great-great-great grandfather Hamilton Ingles served in the 14th PA Cavalry from 1862 to the war's end and actually broke his hand while whacking his horse!

These days, horses are a luxury! In the 19th century, an average horse cost $10-50, today an average horse is $2,000. If you figure a mid-1800s dollar is equal to $20 today, that is still cheaper! It is the upkeep these days that is so expensive, due to lack of farm space.

Monday, April 11, 2011

Civil War Sesquicentennial

Hamilton C. Ingles

Here we are, on April 12th, 2011, on the 150th Anniversary of the start of the Civil War. Four brutal years of  hand-to-hand combat, almost 700,000 Americans dying for their beliefs. (And, amazingly, southerners still act as though they won. Leave it to Johnny Reb!)

Living in Maryland most of my life, I’d be considered “southern,” seeing how we’re south of the Mason-Dixon. Mere technicality. So many slaveowners here freed their slaves after the Revolutionary War that Union sentiment was strong. The economics are what truly decided a Marylander’s loyalty.

Not so a few miles north in PA. Our Ingles ancestors were Union through and through. My kids' great-great-great-grandfather, Hamilton C. Ingles, served in the 14th Pennsylvania Calvary, Company F from August 29, 1862 until May 30, 1865, after the war ended.

Union Cavalry Camp ca 1863

Hamilton was born in 1843, so he was not yet 20 years old when he enlisted into the Army. (His brother Jacob was 25 when he drafted into the 101st PA Infantry in 1864, serving only 3 months). He was paid a $25 bounty at that time, signing on for 3 years.

Hamilton married Rebecca Laughery, of Dunbar, two weeks before his regiment left in November.

Company F was recruited near his hometown in Uniontown (Fayette County) by Sheriff Calvin Springer and James J. Jackson - later Captain and first lieutenant respectively. The regiment was made up of boys or young men from several communities, but a few of the officers were younger than the average age of the enlisted men. Their Colonel, J. M. Schoonmaker, when elected Colonel was only twenty years and four months old. (Read more about him HERE…he was awarded the Medal of Honor after the war!)

J. M. Schoonmaker

The Fourteenth Pa. Cavalry was officially mustered into the service of the United States November 23rd, 1862. They went to Hagerstown, MD, for outfitting and training. December 28, they went from there to Harpers Ferry, VA where they camped on the Charlestown Pike and picketed all approaches.

Early in May, 1863, most headed to Grafton, VA, joining several other regiments in holding the towns of Phillippi, Beverly & Webster and protecting the B&O Railroad there. On July 2nd they were sent to assist “Mudwall” Jackson’s troops at Beverly, and by the 4th, succeeded in driving the enemy back.The same day, due to the ongoing battle at Gettysburg, they were ordered back to Webster and from there to Cumberland by rail and then to Williamsport. They attacked, losing 5 wounded, backed up to Md, then advanced in a few days to Winchester and succeeded in destroying a rebel bridge at Falling Waters.

General Averell

The 4th of August, led by Gen. Wm. W. Averell,  they moved on what was known as the Rocky Gap Raid, to destroy saltpeter and gunpowder mills there, marching through the Alleghenys to Moorefield, WV. From there they pushed the rebels east past  Warm Springs, VA.

Hamilton had managed to remain unscathed thus far. Then came a pivotal battle at White Sulphur Springs.
 “On the morning of August 26, Averell and his men set out for White Sulphur Springs, a resort town just across the West Virginia border that was near a gunpowder mill. At Rocky Gap, just two miles before coming to White Sulphur Springs, the Union troopers came across 1,900 Confederate infantry deployed across the road. The Rebels, commanded by Col. George S. Patton (grandfather of the WWII Gen. Patton!), had been ordered to prevent the Yankees from reaching White Sulphur Springs and had arrived at Rocky Gap just before Averell's men. The Southerners rapidly blocked the road and awaited an attack. Averell was quick to respond; he dismounted his men and sent them forward in repeated attacks on the Rebel line.
The battle raged fiercely throughout the day, but Patton's men repulsed each assault upon their line. Each side slept on the field, and in the morning Averell again sent his men forward through the heavily wooded terrain to attack the Southern defenders. Once again Patton's troops repulsed the Union attacks ; before noon Averell, having given up the contest as well as the attempt to reach White Sulphur Springs, retreated back to the north. Union losses at Rocky Gap were 26 killed, 125 wounded, and 67 missing. Southern losses were 20 killed, 129 wounded, and 13 missing." (Co. F’s Lt Jackson was injured there.)
 You can read more about this battle on the WSS Battle site HERE.

Junction of Anthony's Creek and the James River and Kanawha Turnpike.
The road in center was filled with the dead and wounded. The old house has a shell hole in the end of it.

By this point in the 14th’s duty, they had been engaged for 27 consecutive days and covered over 600 miles!
It was at White Sulphur Springs that Hamilton later claims his eyes became injured by dust they deliberately stirred up. On his request for pension/disability, he says:
The first battle at that place, thus a parcel of them were sent to the rear to sweep the road with brush and make all the dust they could to deceive the rebels and make them believe they had reinforcements and his eyes were injured by the dust in them and it filled them. And it has caused almost a loss of sight eyes are and have been weakening ever since. He also had a bone broke in right hand at Pleasant Valley Maryland by striking at his horse and also had chronic diarrhea.”

They went to Beverly for a rest, where they stayed until November first. They marched south on the Droop Mountain Raid, where they succeeded to drive the rebels back as far as Lewisburg, ending Confederate resistance in WV. The 14th headed back by train to New Creek to head for winter quarters, but on Dec 8th, were called out on a week-long hard march to destroy the Va and Tennessee Railroad. They succeeded in destroying $2-5 million in property & supplies, causing the enemy to surround them in a capture attempt. Averell skillfully avoided that fate despite horrible weather conditions and fatigue, having traveled 345 miles.

The men had walked the soles right off their shoes, due to icy conditions in which they had to lead their horses. Their clothes were in tatters, so the War Dept issued them a complete suit as a gift for their outstanding service. This is believed to be the only instance of this kind during the war.

They had a well-deserved rest until April, and spent the spring chasing rebels constantly. In June, they met heavy losses in Maryland, but by July, they had the enemy on the run down through Virginia.

September saw Sheridan’s brilliant engagements in the Shenandoah Valley, of which the 14th participated and, although victorious, suffered heavy losses.

It was during September that Hamilton was suffering from diarrhea and spent 5 weeks at the Clarysville Hospital near Cumberland, for treatment. It has been reported that twice as many soldiers on both sides of the conflict died of disease as were killed in combat or wounded and died. Some died of the infections of childhood that they were first exposed to in the army, especially rural soldiers who had not built up immunities. Camp diseases like dysentery, malaria, and diarrhea spread through the troops in camps and in hospitals.

Once Hamilton was discharged from the hospital, he was assigned to duty in the Remount Camp in Pleasant Valley, MD until he went to Alexandria to be  mustered out on May 30, 1865. (Likely, this is when his hand was broken.) Curiously, Rebecca gave birth to their first child, Ellen, on August 17, 1865.

The 14th Penna Regiment lost in total 2 officers and 97 enlisted men, killed and mortally wounded,  and 296 Enlisted men by disease. Total 395.
You can read Hamilton's Pension file HERE and his pay record HERE.

Hamilton applied for pension due to disability in April,1889. He received $50/month until his death in 1922, and his widow,  Rebecca,  received $30 from then until her death in 1925.

The Ingles family has a long history of military service to their country. Hamilton's son, George, served 3 years in the Philippines after the Spanish-American War; his grandson Percy Ingles served in Europe during World War I, his great grandson Robert C. Ingles served in WWII, great-great grandson Chris Ingles and great-great-great grandson Chris Ingles have served as well. And that is just the direct lines!

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Thursday, April 7, 2011

The "Boomerang" Letters

Sent to Germany 100+ years ago from our ancestor, Joseph Enz (Mimi's father), to his family back in the little haven of Drackenstein, these letters are giving some amazing insight into their lives. My earlier post about our Enz cousins that travelled there in 2009, finding another cousin, led to these letters returning from whence they came!  (You can read that post HERE.)

I found a wonderful lady, Nora Grosser (email), to translate one letter from 1893. You see, not only are they written in German, but also in old Gothic script! Talk about going cross eyed trying to read. I had picked up some of it during my initial research and can decipher names and a lot of terms used in church records, but conversational sentences are a different story! So thanks to Nora's expertise, the letter below has emerged:

The translation is:

                                                                   Philada[1], April 28, (18)94                                 
Dear brother and sister-in-law                                          
I received your last letter and I saw that you are all healthy. Thank god we are also in good health, we always have work, the times are not the best, it has not been so bad since I have been in America. Thousands walk around and would work for food if they could get that. I have lots of news we come together every Sunday and play cards and drink---                                                                              
(end of page 1)
---beer but everything at home since all inns are closed on Sundays. Dear brother you will have heard from brother-in-law Herbter that he was convicted because of selling beer on Sundays nobody is allowed to do that, he got 6 months in jail and a fine of 500 Dollar. It was his own fault, we always warned him, but it was of no use. Dear Brother if Ms. Rosenkranz will visit again---
Extra-sentence on side: Dear brother did you make sure a mass was read on the anniversary of Mother’s death day?                           
(end of page 2)
 ---next summer, I have a favor to ask you. You know perhaps that they had a piece of wood made of several parts, when put together it was one piece. You have to understand correctly what I mean, several pieces of wood half-cut and when put together then it is one. Maybe Isidor still has it. In case you cannot get it, please ask Kämenwirth to make one, pay what it costs. But you have to do it right away before Ms. Rosenkranz comes from Wiesensteig---
Extra-sentence on side: I did not get anything from Breuers.                                                            
(end of page 3)
---I enclose one dollar here so you can pay for it. Dear brother sister Sofie had some misfortune, at first she lost a child 4 weeks old and then one of her boys with 3 years now she also has got a girl with 2 years. Her husband had no work all winter long and is rough to her, he is a half crazy Xanikl.[2]
I will close now, many greetings to everybody farewell goodbye
Your brother and brother-in-law
Joseph Enz
Extra-sentence on side: Write soon so that I know you can get it[3].                                                    
(end of page 4)

[2] Regional word, most likely somebody who is quarrelsome
[3] Possibly the wood


How cool is that?! And just that mention of a brother-in-law named Herbter (Herbster) lead to some amazing discoveries! After sharing the translation with the Enz cousins, one of them, Jackie, forwarded a baptism certificate she has for her grandmother Rose (Enz) Giger - daughter of Joseph - that had a Theresa Herbster as a sponsor.

We knew sisters Christina & Sophia and brother August were in PA, but not anyone else!

Well, lo and behold, these tidbits led to more:

I looked in the newspaper archives and found an 1898 
Philadelphia obit for a Wilhelmina Herbster, 58 y.o.,  wife of the late 
John Herbster. Joseph Enz had a sister Wilhelmina, those ages match! 
John died in 1895, his death cert says he was a "Gent" I think, but 
the City Directory says machinist.

I found a NY passenger list for Wilhelmina Herbster, and 4 kids: 
Marie, Angus, Theresa and Ann, arrival from Bremen June 13, 1884. It 
is VERY hard to read, and the names aren't exactly right.

The administrator for Wilhelmina's estate was Charles J. Herbster, 
was Wilhelmina's son, and was a butcher. He was born 
1868 in Germany, married Mary Fischer in 1891. He died by 1930. Their 
kids were: 
Irene b. 1893 
Charles Jr. b 1894 (still in Phila with his mom in 1942 per draft reg.) and 
Marion b. 1895 

I found a marriage license issued in Phila for a Rosie Theresa 
Herbster & John Schneider in 1895. 1900 Census, has them in Phila with 
2 kids and a 27 y.o. August Herbster as a boarder. In 1910, they are 
in NJ. 1920 they have 6 kids and are in Vineland, NJ: 
John & Rose (Herbster) Schneider had 5 natural children and 1 adopted 
- they all worked in the bakery shop. 
John F. b 1895 
Minnie 1898 
Helen C. b 1901 
Edward C. b. 1903 in NJ ( m. Catherine in 1924 had 3 daughters),  
Marie b 1908 
and Matilda (adopted) b. 1913 

They ran Schneider's Bakery for many years in Vineland NJ, with their 
son John and are mentioned in "Prominent Families of New 
Jersey." (Link HERE) John the son was widowed young 
and had a son John Jr. Also, Rose's nephew John Herbster worked at the 
bakery thru 1942 when he listed it on his draft reg. 

(SIDEBAR: one of Joseph's letters dated 1921 says something about Rose Schneider geb. 
(born) Herbster. A few words later, Wilhelmina is mentioned. It goes 
on talking about Vineland NJ, but I can't read it. )

August Herbster is in Phila in 1910, married 5 yrs to Mary M., no 
kids. He's a barber. 

Another of Wilhemina's daughters, Mary married a George 
Kurtschenkels in 1890, had 3 children. Mary died a horrible death in a 
fire with one of her children (Charles, 7 mos.) in 1895. Another of 
her kids, Hilda, died unmarried at 23 in 1918 (her father was dead by 
then too), and a son, George,  b. 1891.

Since Wlhelmina Enz Herbster died in 1898, her husband died 
in 1895, their sons August & John lived with Rosa Schneider in 1900. 
Their other daughter Anne married Daniel Smith and was the victim of a 
murder/suicide by her husband in 1909. No kids. Lots of tragedy in 
this family.  (Links to the news articles are HERE and HERE.) 

I then found another sister of Joseph's in Phila - Gertrude! 
While looking thru Census for Herbster, I found: 
John Herbster (Wilhelmina's son), b 1886 in PA, was living in 1910 
with the Pulvermiller family as "nephew." 

Then put this together: 
Gertrude (Enz) married a John Pulvermiller @ 1879 had 9 children, 5  still 
living in 1900. I found six: 
Kate b. 1880 in Germany, 
Englebert b. 1885 in Germany was a baker in Staten Island in 1920, (with  wife 
Hilda & daughter Gertrude),  
Gertrude Wilhelmina b 1886 d. 1886 PA,  
August b 1888 in PA, 
Clara b 1890 in PA (m. John Harker first, had a son Wm Percival; m. 2nd Wm DeSoi, 1 
son Wm. 
), Alphonse b. 1892 PA, d. 1912 Phila, no kids.

Being bakers really ran in the family. Wilhelmina's daughter Mary was 
married to a baker, and their surviving son, George Kurtzschenkels, 
Jr. was also a baker before he was in the Navy. After that, he listed 
his occupation as Yeast Salesman. He was married to a Caroline ca 1924 
but no kids show up by 1930. She died in Phila in 1978. 

So, again, pieces of the puzzle from different relatives, plus a bit of detective work and voila! You have a bigger family! Maybe we will find some other descendants that are out there as well someday.

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